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Volume 18 Issue 5 (2022) | IN PRESS

Special Issue - Future Directions in the Psychology of Music

The Neurochemistry of Instrumental Improvisation in Adults: A Feasibility and Pilot Study

Edward A. Roth, John M. Spitsbergen, Alberto F. Cintrón-Colón
Roth, E. A., Spitsbergen, J. M., & Cintrón-Colón, A. F. (2022). The neurochemistry of instrumental improvisation in adults: A feasibility and pilot study. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 18(3), 1-10.

This study examined the molecular underpinnings of group instrumental music improvisation as well as verbal improvisation in musicians and nonmusicians using blood-based measurements of oxytocin, vasopressin, dopamine, and cortisol, with verbal improvisation serving as a control. All participants (N = 8) were able to successfully complete study tasks as directed and tolerate the blood draws. On average, regardless of musicianship status, males had a greater and directionally divergent change in cortisol when compared to females (males M = -.033; females M = .025) after improvising musically (p < .04). Males also had a significant difference between the decrease in cortisol after music improvisation (M = -.033) compared to an increase in cortisol after verbal improvisation (M = .026; p < .01). The current investigation provided promising results regarding the ability of the study design and procedures to yield useful information when bringing the study to scale with a sufficiently powered sample indicating potential sex and modality based differences.

Keywords: music neurochemical improvisation bonding oxytocin

Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents: Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version

Pedro Dias, Maria João Batista, Sofia Serra, Lurdes Veríssimo, Patrícia Oliveira-Silva, Daniela Coimbra
Dias, P., Batista, M. J., Serra, S., Veríssimo, L., Oliveira-Silva, & Coimbra, D. (2022). Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for adolescents: Psychometric properties of the Portugese version. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 18(4), 11-15.

The aim of the current study was to develop the Portuguese version of the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A) and to examine its psychometric properties with a sample of 161 adolescent music students in Portugal. Participants completed the Portuguese version of the MPAI-A, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The MPAI-A psychometric properties were examined for validity and reliability. A two-factor structure was identified through Exploratory Factor Analysis: F1-Music Performance Anxiety cognitive and somatic symptoms; F2-Performance. Concurrent and known-group validity were established, and reliability scores were appropriate for the dimensions and total score. Results provide initial evidence of the appropriateness of the Portuguese version of the MPAI-A. Practical implications are discussed and future studies with this instrument are suggested.

Keywords: music performance anxiety, assessment, MPAI-A, adolescents, validation, psychometric properties

Effects of Music and Meditative Movement on Affect and Flow: A Feasibility Study

Lai Yiu Yeung, Edward A. Roth, Genevieve Kim
Yeung, L. Y., Roth, E. A., & Kim, G. (2022). Effects of music and meditative movement on affect and flow: A feasibility study. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 18(5), 16-28.

This study aimed to explore the feasibility and the potential effects of adding music to meditative movement on affect and flow. Fifteen participants were recruited and they were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (a) meditative movement without music (NM); (b) recorded music and meditative movement (RM); and (c) live music and meditative movement (LM). Participants from each group engaged individually in a 45-minute online session, practicing three qigong exercise sets. To determine the feasibility, acceptability, and practicality were investigated through the analysis of anecdotal notes, open-ended questionnaires, and video recordings. Potential effects of music and meditative movement were examined by comparing scores from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Short Flow State Scale (SFSS). Statistical tests were performed to determine pre- and post-session differences, between group differences in affect and flow, as well as the effect sizes. Results indicated that the addition of music to qigong is feasible and has a different impact on affect and flow than meditative movement alone. Adding recorded music to meditative movement led to the largest change in affect and was positively valenced. The addition of live music to qigong exercises contributed to the largest increase in flow. The feasibility and preliminary results support the scientific need for further fully-powered investigations.

Keywords: purposeful use of music, neurologic music therapy, recorded music, affect, Positive Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Short Flow State Scale (SFSS)

Tasks financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on the basis of the contract no. 801/P-DUN/2018 out of the funds designed for activities promoting science: Preparation and editing of English versions of articles, Financing foreign Editors-in-Chief, Dissemination of publications and increasing their accessibility to a broad range of readers, Creation of the XML conversion platform to improve the access to the articles (2018-2019). Advances in Cognitive Psychology is co-financed by the Ministry of Education and Science (Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki) under the program "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.

Zadania finansowane w ramach umowy 801/P-DUN/2018 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę: Finansowanie zagranicznych redaktorów naczelnych; Przygotowanie i edycja anglojęzycznych publikacji; Upowszechnianie publikacji i ułatwianie dostępu do nich szerokiemu gronu odbiorców; Utworzenie nowej platformy do udostępniania artykułów. Advances in Cognitive Psychology jest współfinansowane przez Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki w ramach programu "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.